The use of magnetic nanoparticles has been the subject of great interest for their use in various applications such as the high-density storage of data (Weller and Doerner 2000), magnetic energy (Zeng et al. 2002), magnetic separations (Hahn et al. 2007), drug delivery (Pulfer et al. 1999), and hyperthermia treatments (Jordan et al. 1999).The peculiar properties of these nanoparticles have allowed developing remarkable multifunctional systems in nanomedicine. In particular, the possibility to temporarily magnetize the nanomaterial, when an external magnetic field is applied, allows obtaining a device that can be remotely activated and on-demand. Obviously, even the individual nanoparticles have some limitations, such as the low concentration that is usually achieved at the target site when administrated into the bloodstream. Furthermore, these nanoparticles are perfectly stable from the colloidal point of view, but since the magnetization associated with the single nanoparticle is very low, they behave like a ferrofluid; therefore, it is difficult, or better impossible, to separate them from a suspension or to guide them inside a vessel by the magnetic field. To overcome these and other inherent limitations, one possibility is represented by the clustering of magnetic nanoparticles in colloidal assemblies. When the nanoparticles are inserted into a super-structure, specific forces are activated or enhanced, which allow arising different properties compared to the single nanoparticles (but limiting, in certain cases, the advantages of the individual ones).
John Wiley & Sons
8 Sep 2021
Magnetic Nanoparticles in Human Health and Medicine: Current Medical Applications and Alternative Therapy of Cancer